- Date submitted: 31 Oct 2011
- Stakeholder type: Major Group
- Submission Document: Download
- Additional Document:
From Rio 1992 to 2012 and beyond: 20 years of Sustainable Mountain Development - What have we learnt and where should we go?
Since 1992, when chapter 13 on mountains as fragile ecosystems was introduced in Agenda 21, the demand for goods and services from mountains has grown considerably. We assert that mountains are territories with a future and opportunities for Europe and the world. They have much to deliver to society at large and have great potential for smarter, greener and more inclusive development. They are also distinctive areas, because of their altitude, their steep slopes, their low population density, their challenges and their opportunities, and consequently should be addressed specifically. We call for public and private investment in these areas. The return on investment might indeed take longer in these areas than in urban areas or lowlands, but the investment itself will undeniably be more sustainable.
At the same time, these mountain territories are faced with a number of challenges. Indeed, the ability of mountain systems to provide essential goods and services for all of humanity is increasingly under threat from climate change, globalization, a chronic lack of investment, ongoing land degradation in some areas, the absence of an integrated approach to territorial development in many countries, and increasing trends to the concentration of population in ever bigger agglomerations. We recognize that, despite the progress that has been made in promoting sustainable development in many mountain regions, most national and international development agendas still tend to treat mountains, if at all, as marginal environments. On the basis of its experience in the field of sustainable mountain development, its role in development of mountain policies at European, national and regional level, and its specific economic, environmental and social contexts, ROMONTANA recommends that the United Nations, in the discussion at UNCSD, to be held in Rio de Janeiro in 2012:
? recognise the specific role of mountains and the corresponding need for integrated mountain development policies and targeted investment;
? recognise in particular the role provided by mountain ecosystems in providing services that support and enhance the Earth?s sustainability, and the key role that mountain communities play in delivering these services, by developing concepts of payment and compensation for ecosystem services, and implementing such concepts, and considering the economic value of services provided in the general interest (green accounting),
? integrate the assets of mountain regions in processes leading to sustainable development and green Economies, recognising that a geographical differentiation is needed; to identify therefore the conditions required to fully unleash mountain development potential and invest to secure that these conditions exist;
? adopt a multi-sectoral, multi-level and multi-stakeholder approach enabling the UN to direct its Sustainable Development policy towards concrete areas of interest and to identify and strengthen entities for cooperation and the implementation of such policies at the appropriate levels, whether regional, local or mountain range,
? promote networks and partnerships of mountain stakeholders at all levels (governmental, civil society, private sector) and encourage the relevant national and international organisations to consider mountain-related concerns.
? to support mountain-specific observation, research, knowledge development and awareness on environmental, economic and social aspects of mountain areas.
Mountains can deliver green growth.
Mountains and their economies are particularly well placed to deliver green growth, due to their rich natural and cultural heritage. They are the water towers of the world and major reservoirs of biodiversity and natural resources. Due to their topography, altitude and large forest areas, the renewable energy potential in mountain regions is superior to that of many lowland areas; though this also represents a challenge for landscape and biodiversity. As mountain agriculture provides many high-quality products and services, including organic or environmentally friendly farming and extensive rangelands, this sector, often in cooperation with others, can serve as a laboratory for the conservation of biodiversity in balance with human use of resources and interest.
Mountains are also among the most exposed to global change. This means that greening the economy is important for mountain economies to reduce their vulnerability and to increase local added value and employment as well as secure synergy between economic growth, environmental protection and social progress.
With their natural and cultural diversity and importance for downstream regions in terms of resources and ecosystem services, mountain areas are important innovation motors in Green Economies, particularly in sectors where they are ideally placed to invent new and promising solutions, such as green transport, renewable energy supplies, life sciences, new forms of food supply chains, sustainable tourism, or remote service delivery.
However, innovative institutional arrangements are urgently required to foster governance models and decision support systems aiming at both the integration of the social, ecological and economic capital at all scales in mountain regions, and the mainstreaming of mountains into overall national development and conservation processes. This requires in particular: ? major investments to assemble the conditions allowing these areas to fully and sustainably exploit their potential, notably in the sectors of environmentally-friendly transport, energy, ICT and services of general interest; ? a multi-sectoral approach aiming, inter alia, at adequately rewarding the provision of ecosystem services from mountain areas in the general interest, where necessary by correcting market failures related to the specificities of mountain territories. Land managers such as farmers and foresters should, in particular, be equitably remunerated for the provision of public goods resulting from their economic activities . ? general support to the development of initiatives adding value to mountain products (food, crafts) and services (tourism?) in relation to their specific cultural and environmental features. Romontana is member of the European Association for Mountain Regions "Euromontana" and has elaborated together with "Euromontana", in relation to these issues, recommendations on how to remunerate positive externalities provided by mountain land managers; foster the innovation potential of mountain areas; support development of sustainable tourism renewable energies, and services of general interest in mountain areas. It also has developed the European Charter for Mountain Quality Food products, launched at the European Parliament in 2005 and signed by almost 70 governments and organisations. This should lead to the adoption soon of specific protection for mountain food products at European level, opening the way to a specific market segment for mountain quality products, expected by many consumers. Mountain development can contribute to a more inclusive global development Enhancing global political commitment that translates into increased investments tailored to mountain regions will directly benefit mountain communities, some of which are very poor, and indirectly humanity as a whole. Mountain regions are likely to contribute widely to social innovation, thanks to their intense community life. Their governance and cooperation models are often unique, but may also provide valuable models for other regions. Furthermore, sustainable mountain development is a component of a more balanced territorial and placebased development which is highly needed and likely to contribute to a more even and socially sustainable distribution of population and wealth on Earth. A more inclusive and place-based approach to development requires the adoption of a multistakeholder approach and a multi-level governance approach. Across the world?s mountains, the numerous networking entities active at different (governmental, NGO, research level, development agencies?) demonstrate a strong identification in the search for sustainable development solutions for mountains. The dynamism of the Euromontana network, bringing together different sorts of actors at different levels, since its creation in 1996, is a good demonstration of this. The UN can build on the European expertise in this respect ? including European networks, inter-governmental conventions such as Alpine or Carpathian conventions, as well as emerging institutions in mountain research and policy development. The UN must also promote the development of multi-level governance. Mountain ranges are functional areas whose geographical extent often overlaps multiple administrative boundaries. Euromontana is convinced that a focus on functional areas such as mountain ranges can help UN Sustainable Development policies to approach environmental and Green Economy challenges on a regional level, according to the Local Agenda 21 concept (thinking globally, acting locally). Hence, sustainable mountain development, notably through integrated and socially inclusive policies, as well as low carbon technologies, should have a prominent place in the Rio 2012 agenda and in particular in its final declaration. To achieve these ends, strong and united advocacy for mountain issues with tangible results in future UNCSD negotiations is essential. *** "ROMONTANA? - National Association for Mountains Rural Development has been established in 2000 as a non-profit, non-governmental association, with no patrimonial purpose with the main purpose of supporting the general development of the Romanian mountain rural areas. Romontana is based in Romania, Suceava county, city of Vatra Dornei and has 6 branches established in the mountain counties of Alba, Brasov, Cluj, Hunedoara, Harghita and Gorj, gathering together institutions, organizations, universities, public and private bodies that are active in the best interest of the durable development of the mountain regions. Objectives and activities: sustainable development of the mountain rural tourism and agritourism, specific training and education for the general development of the mountain rural areas of Romania, support for the economical development of the mountain communities, promotion of mountain quality products and services, supporting and promoting the interests of the mountain producers, protection of the mountain environment and cultural traditions, facilitating experience exchanges and partnership building between public authorities and private entities, national and international organizations involved in the sustainable development of the mountain area, lobby and informing the public regarding the realities and problems of the Romanian mountain area. "ROMONTANA" has a wide experience and played an important role to the sustainable development of the mountain rural tourism in Romania, beeing one of the first and most representative rural tourism and rural development associations in Romania since it has been established in 2000 with the support of the Swiss goverment trough SDC (Swiss Cooperation and Development Agency) and Euromontana. In over 10 years of activity it has organized a very experienced staff, experts in all the aspects of the rural areas, starting from rural tourism, rural economy to climate change and protection of the mountain environment. Romontana is member of the Mountain Partnership, Euromontana, World Rural Forum and Romanian Mountain Forum. Romontana has been involved in projects and common actions toghether with UNEP Vienna (Interim Secretariate of the Carpathian Convention) in the framework of the Carpathian Convention. Rey Adrian - Radu 31'st October, 2011 Director