Banque Agricole Gabonaise (BAG)
- Date submitted: 28 Oct 2011
- Stakeholder type: Major Group
- Submission Document: Download
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Subject : Inputs for Computation Document
The present energy policies in industrialized countries are primarily determined by the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, the measures adopted under Japan to mitigate the effects of energy production on climate change failed to take into account the full consequences of climate variability more important: These include floods, seasonal droughts, increased storms, landslides, extreme wind speed, ice conditions and heat waves. It is therefore an urgent need to implement adaptation efforts, and this not only in geographically already vulnerable such as Somalia, Central Africa or the low-lying islands like Tuvalu, but, given the nature global climate change around the world.
In comparison with the mitigation measures, there are no parameters and now widely accepted indicators for comparing adaptation needs and the effectiveness of adaptation measures. Given the importance of energy for the economy and development efforts of all countries, it is vital to achieve substantially reduce vulnerabilities in the energy sector itself. Adaptation measures are also suggested to promote the objectives of the eco-development if we want to achieve in conjunction with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which is why it is necessary to develop and test criteria and indicators for energy systems-that is to say, to use a metric to assess the adequacy of proposed measures.
Climate change and energy systems
Climate change is underway, regardless of efforts to reduce emissions that consent states in the future. It is the result of many converging factors that interact in different ways, creating a new humanity to unprecedented challenge in terms of complexity and severity. In this context, the concept approach "anti-climatic risk" needs to evolve an approach for the protection of human extreme weather conditions, an approach to reducing exposure to impacts of climate change. We must therefore adapt to this change, including changes in rainfall patterns and extreme weather events. Given the importance of energy in the economy and the continued ecodevelopment it is vital to reduce vulnerabilities in the energy sector.
Energy systems are is adapted to withstand the expected climate change and its effects. This can be achieved by increasing the resilience of an energy system, for example by increasing the strength of its technical equipment, diversifying its sources of energy supply, by locating more appropriately its energy equipment, developing relationships with other regions, by planning disaster preparedness, managing demand and investing in technological change, renewable energy, energy efficiency, energy management, to further develop the portfolio of options.
Given the low capital turnover in the energy sector and the long life of equipment, it is essential that energy providers, policy makers and citizens are well informed about the potential impacts of climate change on the sector energy so that mitigation and adaptation required to be taken in due course.
Unfortunately, in discussions at national level on energy future, the subject has traditionally been addressed mainly in terms of security of energy supply in terms of quantity and ways to improve it. Policies formulated around the broader context of reducing the vulnerability of energy systems through integrated eco-development strategies, that is to say dealing simultaneously environmental, social, economic, technical and civic, are more sophisticated and still scarce.
Assess the vulnerability and resilience of energy systems .
In order to better understand the best way to create and sustain positive synergies, GABONESE AGRICULTURAL BANK has developed a methodology and a simple and transparent set of indicators to assess the vulnerability and resilience of national energy systems to climate change. Applying the indicators for energy systems, GABONESE AGRICULTURAL BANK seeks to promote the identification of policies and measures (P & M) best able to facilitate and support adaptation activities.
Vulnerability indicators - Adaptation - Energy Resilience (VAR) measure:
1. The vulnerability of energy systems;
2. The effectiveness of adjustment efforts in the energy sector.
These indicators were developed in line with the principle that the underlying metric, that is to say, so far as the statistics actually used, would generally be available for the majority, if not for the whole country. If calculations are required to obtain an indicator, they should be as simple as possible.
Impacts on energy systems and climate-induced vulnerabilities associated.
Climate change is likely to have diverse impacts. The average climatic parameters and the frequency of extreme weather events are likely to change for example. Moreover, these impacts can be applied to other climate parameters such as precipitation, wind speed and sunshine.The effects may be direct or indirect, the latter being frequently more marked.
An increase in temperature, for example, is unlikely to destroy an energy infrastructure. For cons, the melting of glaciers caused by the growth temperature can have dramatic impact on hydroelectric systems in terms of damage to infrastructure in the form of flooding and siltation, landslides, and thus production capacity.
Changes in weather variables will affect the transmission and use of energy irrespective of how it is produced. Extreme events may increase the risk of destruction of transmission lines and, consequently, reduce the demand due to the physical elimination of consuming entities, that is to say, industries, businesses and households.
Vulnerability at the country level
During discussions at national level on energy future, the subject has traditionally been addressed mainly in terms of security of energy supply and ways to improve it. Policies formulated around the broader context of reducing the vulnerability of energy systems through integrated eco-development strategies, that is to say dealing simultaneously environmental, social, economic, technical and civic, are not very many.
If it is desired that the policies and measures proposed to be effective, it is essential to quantify the state of overall vulnerability of the country, so the first set of indicators measuring GABONESE AGRICULTURAL BANK overall vulnerability of a country.
Venerability Energy Systems
Climate change will have a direct impact on demand as the supply of energy. How it will be affected is less obvious. In view of the central role of energy is crucial to be able to assess the vulnerabilities of each of the major energy systems. Once vulnerabilities are identified, it becomes Possible to design and implement appropriate adaptation measures. This process must be applied to existing facilities and their planned evolutions.
Indicators measuring the ability to adapt interventions resulted in increased resilience.
The level of resilience of a system based on its ability to adapt. Adaptation measures can be divided into technical measures, such as infrastructure, and social responses in terms of behavior.
? Technical changes to try to make infrastructure invulnerable to long-term changes in meteorological variables and extreme events.
? The behavioral adaptations intended to adapt the mode of operation of the infrastructure, whether new or old, and location of new infrastructure, to minimize potential damage. In the context of developing countries, these capabilities need external support, for example from the financial mechanisms available under the regime of international policies on climate change. In order to avoid spending money, already small, inefficiently, a set of criteria were developed to measure the effectiveness of adaptation efforts.
Recommendations and conclusions
Even if the first application of indicators VAR is far from perfect, a first application in sub-Saharan Africa has produced a number of vital information. The evaluation process has generated a number of recommendations:
? Evaluation and systematic monitoring of energy systems to ensure they are sufficiently robust and scalable to adapt to climate impacts expected.
? Introduction of new evaluation criteria for energy systems.
? Development of a strategy for medium to long term to ensure a system of energy supply more secure, decentralized, low carbon emissions.
? Use of energy demand management as an accommodation.
? Development of local capacity to assess and meet the energy needs in a climate perspective.
? Establishment of procedures for technology transfer and financing transparent.
? Development of participatory governance energy to get first hand information about the actual energy needs and to mobilize support from the beneficiaries.
The level of resilience of a system depends on the strength of its location. It is therefore not enough to simply assess the impact of a plant on the environment should also determine the impacts of the changing environment of the installation. In addition, a resilient energy sector is the foundation for better community resilience. The energy allows the provision of essential services such as food, health and education. Thanks to its use in trade and business, it also promotes job creation and improved standards of living. Therefore, to properly assess the best way to increase the resilience of an energy system, it is necessary to study in the broader context of eco-development